God's name was removed from the New Testament? Yes, but WHY?
Dr. F. H. A. Scrivener: "In the second century we have seen too many instances of attempts to tamper with the text of Scripture, some merely injudicious, others positively dishonest".
G.D. Kilpatrick: "Deliberate changes in all text types appear to antedate A.D. 200... Tatian is the last author to make deliberate changes. The vast majority of deliberate changes were older then A.D. 200. They came into being in the period A.D. 50-200"
Who was this author Tatian who make deliberate changes in the New Testament's manuscripts?
Tatian was the pupil and student of Justin "The Philosopher". Justin was a pagan philosopher, from I-II century, who became a Christian. But unfortunately after his conversion to Christianity, he holds Gnostic views, believing that God have no name.
In one of his books, Justin wrote that God have no name and don't could have a name.
This opinion is certainly not from the Bible, this is from the pagan philosophers, like one named Platon.
Unfortunately, Tatian was not the last author who make deliberate changes.
Gaius, from the II century, wrote (recorded via Eusebius, the great Church historian): "The Divine Scriptures these heretics (see the plural) have audaciously corrupted. Laying violent hands upon them, under pretense of correcting them." (Burgon, The Revision Revised, p. 323).
Church Father Clement of Alexandria, from the II - III century, wrote (via Eusebius): "The worst corruptions to which the (variants of the) New Testament has ever been subjected originated within one hundred years after it was composed."
Church Father Dionysius: "When my fellow Christians invited me to write letters to them I did so. These the devil's apostles (plural) have filled with tares, taking away some things and adding others. For them the woe is reserved. Small wonder then if some have dared to tamper even with the word of the Lord Himself, when they have conspired to mutilate my own humble efforts".
Ernest Cadman Colwell: "The first two centuries witnessed the creations of the large number of variations known to scholars today. In the manuscripts of the New Testament most variations, I believe, were made deliberately."
Tatian's, II century "Diatessaron" was so corrupted (eliminating the genealogies and all passages referring to Lord Jesus's Jewish descent) that in later years a bishop of Syria threw out 200 copies.
Kilpatrick: "The creation of new variants ceased about 200 AD because it became impossible to sell them. From the 3rd century onward, even Origen could not effectively alter the text."
Origen: "Nowadays, as is evident, there is a great diversity between the various manuscripts, either through the negligence of certain copyists, or the perverse audacity shown by some in correcting the text, or through the fault of those, who, playing the part of correctors, lengthen or shorten it as they please."
Colwell: "The overwhelming majority of variant readings were created before the year 200."
Scrivener: "The worst corruptions to which the NT his ever been subjected, originated within a hundred years after it was composed.''
Kilpatrick: "The creation of new variants ceased by 200 AD because it became impossible to sell them."
F.C. Kenyon: "At the first each book had its single original text, which it is now the object of criticism to recover, but in the first two centuries this original Greek text disappeared under a mass of variants, created by errors, by conscious alterations, and by attempts to remedy the uncertainties thus created."
Have we extra-biblical sources, that could demonstrate us, that the divine name was known and written before the Council of Nicaea? The divine name (YHWH) was written and pronounced outside Judaea, and in Greek transcriptions was close to "Ieoua". In the pronuncion of "Ieoua", "I" is like in "yes".
Ιουώ (Iouō, Koine: [juˈo]): Pistis Sophia (2nd cent.)
Ιεού (Ieou, Koine: [jeˈu]): Pistis Sophia (2nd cent.)
Ιεηωουά (Ie-ee-ōoua): Pistis Sophia (2nd cent.)
Ιευώ (Ieuō): Eusebius (c. 315)
Ιεωά (Ieōa): Hellenistic magical texts (2nd-3rd centuries), M. Kyriakakes (2000)
Eusebius, the famous Church historian quotes the neo-Platonist writer Porphyry as stating that Sanchuniathon of Berytus wrote the truest history about the Jews because he obtained records from "Hierombalus" ("Jerubbaal"?) priest of the god Ieuo (not Jehovah, Yahweh, Yahuwah, etc.), that Sanchuniathon dedicated his history to Abibalus king of Berytus, and that it was approved by the king and other investigators, the date of this writing being before the Trojan war approaching close to the time of Moses, "when Semiramis was queen of the Assyrians".
What is the meaning of the divine name?
"If one understands that the four Hebrew letters represent four vowels, rather than four consonants, then the Name is best represented by the four sounds I-A-U-E or ee-ah-oo-eh. If you pronounce these rapidly you will get the combined sound in English. This appears to agree with Josephus [1st-century Jewish historian], with the Greek transliterations, and the 500 BC Murashu text. It would be written in English as YAHUEH, not strictly YAHWEH, which is the consonantal form. The problem with this proposal is the question of MEANING! These four sounds appear to mean NOTHING in Hebrew, and they lose their connection with the verb hayah, "to be," upon which the Divine Name appears to be based. Hebrew names are supposed to carry meaning, how much more the case with the very Name of God! (...)
"The combination YE-HO-AH makes better grammatical sense. In Hebrew "YE" represents the future or imperfect of the verb "to be," "HO" represents the present, while "AH" represents the past. In other words, this form of the Name would have specific meaning and not be merely a repetition of vowel sounds. Quite literally YEHOAH means "shall/is/was" -- that is, the Eternal, the Ever-living One who will be, is and always was.
This is WHY I prefer the pronunciation YEHOAH, or even the more popular form, YEHOVAH, since it clearly reflects this profound meaning. YAH would then be the contracted, or shortened form, of this full Name, taking the first and last sounds together" (Restoring Abrahamic Faith, Genesis 2000, Charlotte, NC. 28256. 1993, p. 11).
Was the divine name in the New Testament?
Tetragrammaton in DuTillet Hebrew Matthew (according to the translator's transcription Tim Hegg) 1:24 - Angel of יהוה 2:13 - Angel of יהוה 2:15 - Intro to quote from Tanach 2:19 - Angel of יהוה 4:4 - Quote from Tanach 4:7 - Quote from Tanach 4:10 - Quote from Tanach 5:33 - Quote from Tanach 21:9 - Quote from Tanach 21:42 - Quote from Tanach 22:37 - Quote from Tanach 22:44 - Quote from Tanach 23:39 - Quote from Tanach 27:10 - Quote from Tanach 28:2 - Angel of יהוה
Tim Hegg, gave me this explications:
"In the Even Bohan (I'm looking at Ms. Heb. 28 Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit, Leiden, which is Ms A in Howard's edition), the Tetragrammaton is abbreviated with a hey (ה) followed by an acute accent mark ('ה) which indicates an abbreviation for Y-H-V-H.
In the Du Tillet, a unique sign is used for the Tetragrammaton, which looks like a large cursive L with three dots in the middle. I've attached the page of the manuscript with Matt 28:2, "…for an angel of Y-H-V-H came down…" and an arrow indicating the symbol used for the Tetragrammaton.
For the Münster, I only have the 1551 edition of Quinquarboreus, and in this text, the Tetragrammaton is fully written in the Hebrew script, i.e., יהוה."
Jewish Christians used the divine name, named "minims" (heretics) (according to Talmud Shabbat)
"The 'Gilyon[im]' and the [Biblical] books of the Judæo-Christians ["Minim"] are not saved [on Shabbat] from fire; but one lets them burn together with the names of God written upon them." R. Jose the Galilean says: "On week-days the names of God are cut out and hidden while the rest is burned." R. Tarphon says: "I swear by the life of my children that if they fall into my hands I shall burn them together with the names of God upon them."
Rabbi Ishmael says: "If God has said, 'My name that has been written in holiness [i.e., in the "jealousy roll" mentioned in Num. v. 21 et seq.] shall be wiped out by water, in order to make peace between husband and wife,' then all the more should the books of the Judæo-Christians, that cause enmity, jealousy, and contention between Israel and its heavenly Father. . . .
"As they are not saved from fire, so they are not saved when they are in danger of decaying, or when they have fallen into water, or when any other mishap has befallen them"
1. Josephus Flavius I century jewish historian wrote, when the Romans attacked the Temple, the Jews called upon the fear-inspiring name of [Elohim] (The Jewish War V:438).
2. He wrote he had no right to reveal this name to his reader (Jewish Antiquities II:275), however he did give information of primary importance on the very pronunciation he wanted to conceal.
3. However, in his work The Jewish War V:235 he stated: «The high priesiest had his heahead dresseed with a tiaara of fine linen embroidered with a purple border, and surrounded by another crown in gold which had in relief the sacred letters; these ones are four vowels (and not consonants because was matres lectionis)» This description is excellennt; mororeover, it commpletes the one found in Exodus 28:36-39.
4. The rise of anti-judaist leaders: Cerdo, Valentinus, Marcion, Tatian, etc.
5. F.C. Kenyon: the anti-judaist leaders "conscious alterations" in the first part of the second century
6. Against the name of God> Justin Martyr: "God have no name and don't could have a name"
7. Tatian eliminating the genealogies and all passages referring to Lord Jesus's Jewish descent, others (Gnostic) cut off the prologue of John chapter 1
8. Valentinus, Theodotus, Theophilus> Introducing the Trinity concept
9. They lead "violent hands upon the Scriptures" just one word could escape, the word "Aleluia" from Revelation chapter 19, and this because they do not understand his meaning: "Hallelu Yah"
10. After the second century:
"Some oriental Christians, due to their knowledge of the Hebraic language, prevented a complete disappearance of the name. Thus, Severi of Antioch, used the form IÔA (Iwa) in a series of comments in chapter eight of John's gospel (Jn 8:58), pointing out that it was God's name in Hebrew, a name that one finds also in the front pages of a codex of 6th century (Coislinianus) to assign the Invisible or the Unspeakable
It is interesting to note that Matthew's gospel in Hebrew was found in a work dated from 6th to the 9th (Nestor's book) and attributed to the priest Nestorius, in which God's name appears under the Hebraic shape "The Name" (Hashem) instead of the usual "Lord"
In commenting on a work of Severi of Antioch, the famous scholar James of Edesse made clear around 675 in a technical comment, that the copyists of the Septuagint (of his time) were divided over whether to write the divine name Adonay, to keep it within the Greek text in the form P I P I (corresponding in fact to the Hebrew name YHYH as he mentioned), or to translate it as Kurios and write it in the margin of the manuscript."
"These quotations are exeptional however, because even the famous translator Albinus Alcuini, specified that although God's name was written Jod He Vau Heth, it was read Lord, because this name was ineffable. Things began to change when translators again made translations directly from Hebrew and not from a translation. The first was doubtless the famous Karaite Yefet ben Eli who translated the Bible into Arabic. In copies of this translation (made around 960), one finds at times the Tetragram vocalized Yahwah (or Yahuwah), a normal transcription of the Hebrew shape Yehwah of this time (or Yahowah whom one finds in some codices within Babylonian punctuation); because in Arabic there are only three sounds: â, î and û. The shape Yahuwah was apparently understood Yah Huwa "Oh He" in Arabic, because it seems so in a manuscript dated 10-th century. Some famous imams, such as Abu-l-Qâsim-al-Junayd who died in 910, now known as Fahr ad-Din Râzî, while knowing that God had 99 beautiful names explained that the supreme name (ism-al-a‘zam) of God was Yâ Huwa not Allah. A follower of al-Junayd, the Soufi Husayn ibn Mansur al-Hallâj (857-922), asserted : «Here are the words of which sense seemed ambiguous. Know that temples hold by His Yâ-Huwah and that bodies are being moved by His Yâ-Sîn. Now Hû and Sîn are two roads which end into the knowledge of the original point». Yâ-Sîn is a reference to the Sura 36 and Yâ-huwah wrote y‘hwh in Arabic, makes reference to the Hebrew Tetragram. Al-Hallâj was rejected as madman by his teacher, al-Junayd, and died executed in Bagdad as a heretic."
Time always tells the truth!
1. The snowball Trinity versus the Father Almighty
2. He is "Yehowah": God's holy name
3. The story of The rich man and the beggar Lazarus: A fake, a literal history or a parable?
See why is a fake...
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